In 2022, an estimated 270.9 million tonnes of cereals were harvested across the EU. This was 26.7 million tonnes less than in 2021, the equivalent of a 9% decrease.
France harvested 59.9 million tonnes of cereals in 2022; it was the largest cereal producer in the EU, contributing 22% of the EU’s total production. Germany harvested 43.5 million tonnes of cereals (16% of the EU total), Poland 35.0 million tonnes (13%), Spain 19.3 million tonnes (7%) and Romania 18.9 million tonnes (also 7% of the EU total).
Source dataset: apro_cpsh1
The overall decline in the EU’s harvested production of cereals in 2022 was driven by developments in drought-affected Romania (-32%: a decline of 8.9 million tonnes), France (-10%: a decline of 7.0 million tonnes), Spain (-24%: a decline of 6.2 million tonnes) and Hungary (-35%: a decline of 4.9 million tonnes). There were very few countries where the overall cereals harvest increased but they included, among others, Germany (+3%, an increase of 1.1 million tonnes), Finland (+39%, a rebound of 1.0 million tonnes after a poor harvest in 2021) and Poland (+3%, an increase of 1.0 million tonnes).
Declines in wheat and spelt, grain maize and rye production in 2022
The EU harvested 126.7 million tonnes of common wheat and spelt in 2022, 3.2 million tonnes less than in 2021, a decrease of 2%. The harvested production of grain maize and corn-cob-mix slumped to 53.0 million tonnes in 2022, 20.0 million tonnes less than in 2021 and equivalent to a decline of 27%. This sharp fall principally reflected the adverse effects of widespread droughts within the EU.
The EU’s harvested production of barley in 2022 was almost unchanged at 52.0 million tonnes as was the production of oats at 7.5 million tonnes. By contrast, rye production fell by 8% to 7.8 million tonnes in 2022.
Widespread drought and heat stress impacted overall cereal production levels
Crop production is highly sensitive to weather conditions, both during the growing season and at harvest. In many regions in Europe, maximum daily temperatures during the summer of 2022 were the warmest or second warmest recorded during the period since 1991. Heat stress, caused by these high temperatures, and drought were contributing factors to the lower harvested production of some cereals, most particularly grain maize, in a number of regions of the EU.
This information comes from recently published data on 2022 crop production from arable land. It reflects just some of the information available in a more detailed Statistics explained article on crops. The article covers the harvested production and agricultural price statistics for cereals, potatoes, sugar beet, oilseeds, fruit, vegetables, grapes for wine and olives for oil.